Until we de-stigmatize the condition itself, and despite the implementation of policy, individual acts of discrimination will likely continue. Origins of this approach have emanated from multiple disciplines over the past century or more. According to the functionalist perspective, health is vital to the stability of the society, and therefore sickness is a sanctioned form of deviance. It is a micro-theoretical approach that focuses on understanding how meaning is generated through processes of social interaction. This what honestly sets a PMHNP (or nurses) apart from a social worker, physicians, and other disciplines. Scheff, Thomas. You may prefer just one of the theories that follow, or you may find that combining theories and perspectives provides a fuller picture of how we experience health and wellness. This article provides a glossary of perspectives, processes, and settings that pertain to an ecological approach in health research. This book clearly situates health communication within its social context. KEYWORDS health care, seeking behaviour, theoretical models, rural women, healthcare services ABSTRACT Health care has received a greater signicance today in order to achieve a Healthy Society. Each of the three major sociological theoretical perspectives approach the topics of health, illness, and medicine differently. The Institute of Public Health in Ireland (IPH) promotes cooperation for public health on the island of Ireland. Health communication is key to promoting good population and individual health outcomes. Dr. Dombeck I am a graduate student at the University of South Florida and I have been surfing your site. Apply functionalist, conflict theorist, and interactionist perspectives to health issues. Read Text. OpenStax CNX. Therefore, it is sometimes necessary for various forms of social control to bring the behavior of a sick person back in line with normal expectations. Under this perspective, as our perception of a condition changes, so do the social consequences of that condition. While interactionism does acknowledge the subjective nature of diagnosis, it is important to remember who most benefits when a behavior becomes defined as illness. Each of the three major theoretical perspectives approaches the topics of health, illness, and medicine differently. TheoreTical PersPecTives on Medicine and socieTy inTroducTion In this chapter, the major fields of scholarship and research in the humanities and social sciences that have examined the social role of scientific medicine in western societies are reviewed for the theoretical developments which have occurred since the mid-20th century. Why? The purpose of theory is to have a solid foundation when you are studying, assessing, or implementing an intervention. And what about people who are sick, but are unwilling to leave their positions for any number of reasons? For many years now, homosexual couples have been denied spousal benefits, either in the form of health insurance or in terms of medical responsibility. In this model of health, doctors serve as gatekeepers, deciding who is healthy and who is sick—a relationship in which the doctor has all the power. A related process is demedicalization, in which “sick” behavior is normalized again. (May 2017). As we discussed in the beginning of the module, interactionists focus on the specific meanings and causes people attribute to illness. A more recent example is homosexuality, which was labeled a mental disorder or a sexual orientation disturbance by the American Psychological Association until 1973. Summary … Download full paper File format: .doc, available for editing. This first video clip gives some examples of ways that those with HIV are discriminated against, even within the medical community. I was curious to know what your theoretical perspective is based. Cognitive psychology believes that internal mental states such as desire, belief, ideas, and motivation exist. Therefore, it is sometimes necessary for various forms of social control to bring the behavior of a sick person back in line with normal expectations. While this market solutions model has indeed provided many advances, a conflict theorist would likely respond that greater state-sponsored investment–with better public health outcomes as the goal–could also effect the same evolutions in treatment. Watch this video to review and see examples of how each of these key paradigms views medicine. However, this exemption is temporary and relative to the severity of the illness. We’d love your input. Discrimination is often the result of stigma towards specific groups or medical conditions. Theorists using the conflict perspective suggest that issues with the healthcare system, as with most other social problems, are rooted in capitalist society. Which theoretical perspective do you think best explains the sociology of health? THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVES IN HEALTH AND SOCIAL CARE PRACTICE WITH ADULTS Name: Institutional Affiliation: Theoretical Perspectives in Health and Social Care Practice with Adults Introduction As individual ages, there is a need for caregivers to have a better understanding of the aging process in a bid to improve the quality of life for these people. Alongside the health disparities created by class inequalities, there are a number of health disparities created by racism, sexism, ageism, and heterosexism. They therefore ensure that they will have health care coverage, while simultaneously ensuring that subordinate groups stay subordinate through lack of access. With alcoholism defined as a disease and not a personal choice, alcoholics came to be viewed with more compassion and understanding. Did you have an idea for improving this content? The authors critically examine the relevance of postcolonial theoretical perspectives to nursing research in the area of Aboriginal health. For many years, and only until very recently, homosexual couples had been denied spousal benefits, either in the form of health insurance or in terms of medical responsibility. The amount of nursing intervention depends on the ability or inability to achieve self-care needs. What examples of medicalization and demedicalization can you think of? According to the functionalist perspective, health is vital to the stability of the society, and therefore sickness is a sanctioned form of deviance. As we discussed in the beginning of the chapter, interactionists focus on the specific meanings and causes people attribute to illness. This creates significant health care—and health—disparities between the dominant and subordinate groups. Each of the three major theoretical perspectives approaches the topics of health, illness, and medicine differently. They discuss key theoretical underpinnings of postcolonial theory, citing differences and commonalities in postcolonial theory, postcolonial indigenous thinking, and other forms of critical theory. Which theoretical perspective do you think best explains the sociology of health? You may prefer just one of the theories that follow, or you may find that combining theories and perspectives provides a fuller picture of how we experience health and wellness. But is it appropriate to allow doctors so much power over deciding who is sick? It has 3 key areas of work: Strengthening public health intelligence; Pharmaceutical companies make billions treating illnesses such as fatigue, insomnia, and hyperactivity that may not actually be illnesses in need of treatment, but opportunities for companies to make more money. As the field has developed, there is a growing need for a critical appraisal of the ideologies and theories underpinning health communication in order to ensure effective practice. During the latter half of the twentieth century, however, people who drank too much were increasingly defined as alcoholics: people with a disease or a genetic predisposition to addiction who were not responsible for their drinking. The sick person can take as long as she wants to get better. This creates strife within the larger healthcare system and also results in personal health disparities between the dominant and subordinate groups. Each of the three major theoretical perspectives approaches the topics of health, illness, and medicine differently. According to conflict theorists, capitalism and the pursuit of profit lead to the commodification of health: the changing of something not generally thought of as a commodity into something that can be bought and sold in a marketplace. Alongside the health disparities created by class inequalities, there are a number of health inequalities created by racism, sexism, ageism, and LGBTQ+ discrimination. There are numerous examples of demedicalization in history as well. Comments (0) Add to wishlist Delete from wishlist. Understand how the three different perspectives view health and illness. Talcott Parsons (1951) was the first to discuss this in terms of the sick role: patterns of expectations that define appropriate behavior for the sick and for those who take care of them. According to theorists working in this perspective, health and illness are both socially constructed. With alcoholism defined as a disease and not a personal choice, alcoholics came to be viewed with more compassion and understanding. During the Civil War era, slaves who frequently ran away from their owners were diagnosed with a mental disorder called drapetomania. Theorists using the conflict perspective suggest that issues with the healthcare system, as with most other social problems, are rooted in capitalist society. The term medicalization of deviance refers to the process that changes “bad” behavior into “sick” behavior. "Download for free at. A more recent example is homosexuality, which was labeled a mental disorder or a sexual orientation disturbance by the American Psychological Association until 1973. A health system and societal context perspective is helpful in order to understand the pharmacists’ roles in respect to antibiotic consumption and antibiotic resistance. Parsons, Talcott. Comments (0) Add to wishlist Delete from wishlist. To start with, she has not chosen to be sick and should not be treated as responsible for her condition. If you redistribute this textbook in a print format, then you must include on every physical page the following attribution: Theoretical Perspectives on Health and Illness - Term Paper Example. If the sick person stays ill longer than is appropriate (malingers), they may be stigmatized. While the functionalist perspective looks at how health and illness fit into a fully functioning society, the conflict perspective is concerned with how health and illness fit into the oppositional forces in society. Theoretical Perspectives on Health and Medicine. Your site offers a wealth of information for perspective clients and pre-professionals. The sick person also has the right of being exempt from normal social roles; she is not required to fulfill the obligation of a well person and can avoid her normal responsibilities without censure. A related process is demedicalization, in which “sick” behavior is normalized again. For questions regarding this license, please contact. 1963. 1992. Self-care can be defined as the care of oneself without medical, professional, or other assistance or oversight. According to the functionalist perspective, health is vital to the stability of the society, and therefore sickness is a sanctioned form of deviance. An ecological perspective on health emphasises both individual and contextual systems and the interdependent relations between the two. In this model, doctors serve as gatekeepers, deciding who is healthy and who is sick—a relationship in which the doctor has all the power. According to Parsons, the sick person has a specific role with both rights and responsibilities. Theoretical perspective Major assumptions; Functionalism: Good health and effective medical care are essential for the smooth functioning of society. Activities Combating HIV Stigma and Discrimination. [1] Most importantly, because of the stigma attached to the disease, individuals have foregone medical assistance and have passed away as a consequence. An example of medicalization is illustrated by the history of how our society views alcohol and alcoholism. Thus, “badness” was transformed into “sickness.”. The Social System. Parsons argues that since the sick are unable to fulfill their normal societal roles, their sickness weakens the society. Should alcoholism and other addictions be medicalized? (Photo courtesy of the Library of Congress/Wikimedia Commons), An example of medicalization is illustrated by the history of how our society views alcohol and alcoholism. They were called drunks, and it was not uncommon for them to be arrested or run out of a town. Talcott Parsons (1951) was the first to discuss this in terms of the sick role: patterns of expectations that define appropriate behavior for the sick and for those who take care of them. Orem’s Self-Care Model designates a structure in which the nurse supports the client to retain a sufficient level of self-care. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press. Nr.47, 2008-2009). It is not only the poor who suffer from the conflict between dominant and subordinate groups. Patients must perform the “sick role” in order to be perceived as legitimately ill and to be exempt from their normal obligations. The exemption also requires legitimation by a physician; that is, a physician must certify that the illness is genuine. Within the academic discipline of sociology, two major theoretical perspectives exist which seek to analyse human societies utilising a social structural or systems approach. Summary … Download full paper File format: .doc, available for editing. Further adding to the issue, doctors hold a disproportionate amount of power in the doctor/patient relationship, which provides them with extensive social and economic benefits. The Critical Theoretical Perspectives and the Health Care System Daisy Michelle Princeton1 Abstract Background of the study: The goal of healthcare system is to achieve a well-organized, safe and holistic patient care. Pharmaceutical companies make billions treating illnesses such as fatigue, insomnia, and hyperactivity that may not actually be illnesses in need of treatment. While interactionism does acknowledge the subjective nature of diagnosis, it is important to remember who most benefits when a behavior becomes defined as illness or condition. The responsibility of the sick person is twofold: to try to get well and to seek technically competent help from a physician. While conflict theorists are right to point out certain inequalities in the healthcare system, and their critiques have propelled equity-driven policy, they do not give enough credit to medical advances that would not have been made without an economic structure to support and reward researchers, a structure that has typically been dependent on profitability. The class, race, and gender inequalities in our healthcare system support the _____________ perspective. 1. Memory structures are considered responsible for the way in which information is perceived and processed, as also how it is stored, remembered, and disremembered. The inequality that is seen in other spheres and institutions is pervasive in healthcare access, further accumulating disadvantage to already subordinate groups. But is it appropriate to allow doctors so broad discretion in deciding who is and is not sick? Purpose: This paper presents some key theoretical issues about trust, and seeks to demonstrate their relevance to understanding of, and research on, health systems. Also at issue for conflict theorists and their critics is the degree to which the hard-won medical expertise possessed by doctors and not patients might render a truly mutual understanding elusive. While working at Indiana University Orem’s goal was to upgrade the quality of nursin… It is not only the poor who suffer from the conflict between dominant and subordinate groups. Learn about the three different theoretical perspectives on health and medicine from structural functionalism, conflict theory, and symbolic interactionism. In this view, people with money and power—the dominant group—are the ones who make decisions about how the healthcare system will be run. Utilise critical appraisal skills in identifying and examining the key theoretical perspectives underpinning health promotion and how it is applied to contemporary health and social care issues. (e.g., personal/social obligations, financial need, or lack of insurance). Read and watch a dissenting view: http://openstaxcollege.org/l/addiction\_medicalization, Conrad, Peter and Joseph W. Schneider. Medicine is the social institution that diagnoses, treats, and prevents disease. Patients must perform the “sick role” in order to be perceived as legitimately ill and to be exempt from their normal obligations. Theoretical perspective Major assumptions; Functionalism: Good health and effective medical care are essential for the smooth functioning of society. During the 19th century, people who drank too much were considered bad, lazy people. Medicalization and demedicalization affect who responds to the patient, how people respond to the patient, and how people view the personal responsibility of the patient (Conrad and Schneider 1992). Thus, “badness” was transformed into “sickness.”. Dorothea Orem’s Self-Care Deficit Theory, is one of the most extensively used models in nursing. HIV continues to be an epidemic in parts of Africa, not necessarily because of stigma, but because of the lack of available treatment resources. Module Name: Theoretical Perspectives on Mental Health/Illness Module Code: NU1P01 ECTS: 5 No. of Hours: 20 Term: Michaelmas Assessment Date: Week 16 Module Leader: Jean Morrissey Lecturers: Jean Morrissey, Mike Watts, Brian Keogh Aims Medicalization and demedicalization affect who responds to the patient, how people respond to the patient, and how people view the personal responsibility of the patient (Conrad and Schneider 1992). The sick person also has the right of being exempt from normal social roles; they are not required to fulfill the obligation of a well person and can avoid normal responsibilities without censure. Identify and utilise sources of information appropriate to supporting public health and health promotion initiatives 2. 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